YULIA FITRI ANDRIANI

MAKALAH LANGUAGE TEACHING SEMINAR

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Problem.

English education is very important today because we will face the globalization era. Most of the foreigners will come to our country and use their language. Because of English is international language, the government thought that this language is needed by all of people in Indonesia. Realizing the importance of English language , the Indonesian department of national education ( Depdiknas ) adds the English language in to the educational curriculum ( Daliasmaniar, 2007:1 )

For the first step, the government give the English curriculum for the fourth year of elementary school, and now, we can see that English is taught for the kindergarten students. The teaching of English also have good improvement. Actually, the purpose of teaching English in elementary school is for preparing the students to be communication as early possible and to make students master the four of language skill ( speaking, listening, reading and writing ) .These skills are learned separately but they are related each other.

Burley- Allen (1982 ) found the classroom emphasis on language modes to be inversely related to he time people use them : Students get 12 years of formal training in writing, 6-8 years in reading, 1-2 years in speaking and from 0- ½ years listening.

According to Wilt (1950) listening is the first language mode that children acquire. It provides a foundation for all aspects of language and cognitive development, and it plays a life long role in the processes of learning and communication essential to productive participation in life. A study by Wilt (1950), which found that people listen 45 percent of the time they spend communicating. Wilt found that 30 percent of communication time was spent speaking, 10 percent reading, and 9 percent writing.

Based on explanation above, listening is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that people spend almost half their communication time listening, and students may receive as much as 90 % of their in-school information through listening to instructors and to one another. We can imagine that without engaging our active listening skills, the person's name never entered our brain and therefore, we never had a chance at remembering the name it so in get information. the more we listen the more we get and make easy to speak.

In other hand, there are several problems in teaching listening so far. They are:

a. The message

The message or content is usually not well organized or listening material unfamiliar with student, and also the massage from recorder can not be listening to slower speed. Even the listener impossible to ask the speaker to repeat what he said.

b. The speaker

Redundant utterances may take form of repetition, false star, re-phrasing and self correction.

c. The listener

Foreign language learners are not familiar enough with clichés and collocation in English to predict a missing word or phrase.

d. Physical Setting

Noise on the recording and environment can take the listener's mind of the content of listening passage.

e. Procedural problem

- Not knowing what to do

- Not knowing what kind of response is expected

To avoid the problems in teaching listening we can use several techniques like cooperative learning, games and songs. English song can be used for a wide variety of ESL learning and teaching activities. By using the song the student will motivate in study, because they will pleasure when listen to the sound like song. They can start discussions on a topic or even become the centre of debate. This is especially true of songs that develop a particular theme. Songs are also great for teaching listening.

B. Identification of the problem.

Listening is difficult skill to comprehend by student in elementary school because student may think he listens but he may not understand what the speaker says. In teaching English, reading, speaking, writing and listening never to the combine, especially of listening and speaking because it makes students bored and less motivation. So, the teacher can be use teaching listening and speaking skill integrative.

C. Limitation and Formulation of the problem.

Based on background of the problem and identification of the problem, the writer will focus on teaching listening and speaking interactively of the fourth grade at elementary school. The problem can be formulated as follow : “ How to teach listening and speaking integrative for the fourth grade students of elementary school? “

D. Purpose of the Paper

The paper is presented in Language Teaching Seminar subject and will give some ideas to the writer about how to teach speaking and listening integrative for the fourth students at elementary school.

E. Signification of the Problem.

The result of this study is expected to give useful references, especially for:

ü English teacher at elementary school

This paper will give contribute for the teacher to improve their teaching skill at elementary school especially about the speaking and listening.

ü The students at third grade of English department

This paper will give benefit for us to know about teaching procedure that suitable for the students in elementary school.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELEVANT THEORIES

A. Listening Activities

1. The Nature of Listening

Listening is usually defined as a receptive skill comprising both a physical process and an interpretive, analytical process. Listening is making sense of oral language. It is constructing meaning by attending, anticipating, predicting, focusing, visualizing, making connections, generalizing, and evaluating. Listening is the first language mode that children acquire and it provides the basis for the other language arts (Lundsteen, 1979). It is one of the most basic and most used of the language arts (Tompkins, Bright, Pillard, & Winso, 1999, p. 298).

According to Pauline Olivers in ( http://Alex.thing.net.pripelmail/ie/2008-February/003134.html ), Listening is an active engagement with other and simultaneously is memory. Listening is an instant reflex in order to get information what the eyes cannot see: the goings-on outside the window, the conversations outside the door, the sound of the distant radio. It can also be observed that people can be easily roused from its catatonic state through sound, this is why people rely on their alarm clocks in order to wake up.

Based on the definition above , the writer can conclude that listening is the process in getting meaning of language by hearing and analyze the streams of sounds.

2. Types of Listening

According to Harmer ( 2001:228 ) There are two types of listening , They are :

a. Extensive Listening

Extensive listening is listening activities that got by students in real communication where a teacher encourages students to choose for themselves what they listen to do for pleasure and general language environment. Harmer said that extensive listening helps students to acquire Vocabulary and grammar.

b. Intensive Listening

Intensive listening usually do by teacher in classroom context. According to Harmer ( 2001: 229 ) , Intensive listening can divided into three parts , They are :

- Using tape material

- Live listening ( Reading aloud , Story telling, Interview, and conversation)

- The roles of teacher ( Organizer, Machine Operator, Feedback operator, and prompter )

3. Criteria of Good Listener

There are 10 criteria for the Good Listener , they are :

i. Good listeners realize that the lecture is not a popularity contest and they look for ideas being presented, not for things to criticize

ii. Good listeners listen with mind

iii. Good listeners filter out distractions and concentrate on what the speaker is saying.

iv. Good listeners understand that speakers talk about what they think is most important.

v. Good listeners adjust their style of note taking to the speaker's topic and method of organization.

vi. Good listeners want to see how the facts and examples support the speakers ideas and arguments.

vii. Good listeners want to learn something new and try to understand the point.

viii. Good listeners listen closely for information that can be important and useful. even lecture is dull .

ix. Good listener hear these same word

x. Good listeners use any extra time or pauses in the lecture to reflect on the speakers message.

4. Problems in Listening

We know that listening is one of the English skill was thought difficult by the students. It is difficult for them because the native speaker have habit that is different with us , especially in the way the speak. In other hands there are many problems that disturb listening process such as :

i. Problems of hearing

Some pupil have physical problem in hearing, or this may arise from physical context ( noise ) or difficulties in hearing a recording.

ii. Problems of discrimination and auditory perception

Some pupils have problems with auditory discrimination (identification of phonemes), or auditory memory ( recall ), or sequential memory ( recalling the correct sequence of words or phases they have just hear ).

iii. Attention and concentration

Many pupils don’t listen effectively, as a result of heaving a short attention span. Various activity can be used to develop listening concentration such as : following oral instruction for a complicated physically process like making up a parcel, or for walking around a room blindfold.

iv. Comprehension

Pupil may have difficulties with factual or literal comprehension particularly in situation where they are required to interpret what was said-perhaps dealing with abstract concepts or cause effect relationship between facts.

5. Factor Influence of Listening

Brown and Yule in sari Yani ( (2007:2003 )state that listening is demanding process. it is not only because completely of the process but also due to several factors. They are:

a. The Listener

A listener who is an active participant in a conversation generally has more background knowledge to facilitated understanding of the topic. Listener should have concentration when listen to information and should have good hearing. Criteria of Good listener are:

· Have more friends because people like to be heard.

· Stop working

· Stop reading

· Look at the person

· Keep a good distance between you and the speaker, don’t turn away from the speaker.

b. The Speaker

The speaker should have a good and clean in pronunciation in order to avoid confuse to listener and use the easier vocabulary. Really listening to students is critical to the students/ teacher relationship, for knowing their teacher is interested in what they are saying , makes students feel cared about and emotionally connected to school . since research shows that feeling connected is requisite to students motivation to learn, showing that we listen is important not only as a matter of kindness, but also as a motivational strategy.

c. The Content

The content should be familiar, easier to comprehend and appropriate with student level. Teacher should give the material which near with students life.

6. Teaching Listening

There are some steps that must do by the teacher in teaching listening for the young learner , they are :

a. The teacher should lay stress on imitating the tape-recorder, and improve the quality oflistening.
   In class, pupils are asked to first listen to the tape recordings or watch TV in English, which can enable them to familiar with foreigners’ pronunciation or tone, then repeat and memorize it. They must imitate the model English and achieve correct and standard pronunciation, intonation, stress and rhythm. If so, it will improve pupils’ quality of listening English efficiently.

b. The teacher must pay attention to the class teaching, and cultivate the habit of listening.
   In teaching, listening should be the chief means of teaching in the beginning and intermediate stages. So, as for teachers, they must insist on teaching listening in class, which is beneficial to focus the pupils’ attention; temper their capacity of perception; cultivate their imaginative power and the ability of thought. While the teachers teach new lesson, they adhere to let the pupil read the questions about the content of the dialogue, then hear a model dialogue one or more times, which is on the tape. The pupils just listen and try to understand the meaning of the dialogue with the help of the teacher’s gestures, mime, context or situation established in advance. At last, they find out the answers and repeat the sentences that are related to those problems. If do like this, the pupils will form a habit of careful listening. And they will raise the ability of listening naturally, as long as they make unremitting efforts.

c. Both teachers and pupils use English in class.

  The teachers speak only the target language. Pupils may use either the first or second language. If they choose to respond in the second language, their errors are not corrected unless meaning is affected.

d. The teachers have to use various kinds of teaching forms to arouse the learners’ listening interesting.

e. It is very nature is to lead to thought and action.

Grown Ardent, interest becomes enthusiasm, “without which,” says Emerson, “

nothing great was ever accomplished.”

f. Pupils are naturally curious and active.

They are full of enthusiasm and often show a lot of eagerness to participate. If pupils are happy, feel secure and in a relaxing environment they are more likely to enjoy listening activities that include listening activities, such as, listening and doing coloring, numbering, ticking, pointing, or matching. Moreover, these activities can help develop children’s real-life listening skills and arouse their listening interesting.

To achieve the aims related to listening skill, the teacher also plays an important role that is defined in the following steps:

1. It is important to help pupils prepare for the listening task well before they hear the text itself. First of all the teacher must ensure that the pupils understand the language they need to complete the task and are fully aware of exactly what is expected of them. Reassure the pupils that they do not need to understand every word they hear.

2. The next important step is to encourage pupils to anticipate what they are going to hear. In everyday life, the situation, the speaker, and visual clues all help us to decode oral messages. A way to make things a bit easier to the pupils is to present the listening activity within the context of the topic of a teaching unit. This in itself will help pupils to predict what the answers might be. The teacher can help them further by asking questions and using the illustrations to encourage pupils to guess the answers even before they hear the text.

3. During the listening the pupils should be able to concentrate on understanding the message so make sure they are not trying to read, draw, and write at the same time. Always give a second chance to listen to the text to provide a new opportunity to those who were not able to do the task.

4. Finally, when pupils have completed the activity, invite answers from the whole class. Try not to put individual pupils under undue pressure. Rather than confirming whether an answer is correct or not, play the cassette again and allow pupils to listen again for confirmation. You may be given a variety of answers, in which case list them all on the board and play the text again, so that the class can listen and choose the correct one. Even if the pupils all appear to have completed the task successfully, always encourage them to listen to the text once more and check their answers for themselves.

Good listening lessons must be related activities before and after the listening. Here is the basic structure:

· Before Listening

Prepare your learners by introducing the topic and finding out what they already know about it. A good way to do this is to have a brainstorming session and some discussion questions related to the topic. Then provide any necessary background information and new vocabulary they will need for the listening activity.

· During Listening

Be specific about what students need to listen for. They can listen for selective details or general content, or for an emotional tone such as happy, surprised, or angry. If they are not marking answers or otherwise responding while listening, tell them ahead of time what will be required afterward.

· After Listening

Finish with an activity to extend the topic and help students remember new vocabulary. This could be a discussion group, craft project, writing task, game, etc.

The following ideas will help make your listening activities successful.

· Noise
Reduce distractions and noise during the listening segment. You may need to close doors or windows or ask children in the room to be quiet for a few minutes.

· Equipment
If you are using a cassette player, make sure it produces acceptable sound quality. A counter on the machine will aid tremendously in cueing up tapes. Bring extra batteries or an extension cord with you.

· Repetition
Read or play the text a total of 2-3 times. Tell students in advance you will repeat it. This will reduce their anxiety about not catching it all the first time. You can also ask them to listen for different information each time through.

· Content
Unless your text is merely a list of items, talk about the content as well as specific language used. The material should be interesting and appropriate for your class level in topic, speed, and vocabulary. You may need to explain reductions (like 'gonna' for 'going to') and fillers (like 'um' or 'uh-huh').

· Recording Your Own Tape

Write appropriate text (or use something from your textbook) and have another English speaker read it onto tape. Copy the recording three times so you don't need to rewind. The reader should not simply read three times, because students want to hear exact repetition of the pronunciation, intonation, and pace, not just the words.

· Video
You can play a video clip with the sound off and ask students to make predictions about what dialog is taking place. Then play it again with sound and discuss why they were right or wrong in their predictions. You can also play the sound without the video first, and show the video after students have guessed what is going on.

· Homework
Give students a listening task to do between classes. Encourage them to listen to public announcements in airports, bus stations, supermarkets, etc. and try to write down what they heard. Tell them the telephone number of a cinema and ask them to write down the playing times of a specific movie. Give them a tape recording of yourself with questions, dictation, or a worksheet to complete.

There are many types of listening activities. Those that don't require learners to produce language in response are easier than those that do. Learners can be asked to physically respond to a command (for example, "please open the door"), select an appropriate picture or object, circle the correct letter or word on a worksheet, draw a route on a map, or fill in a chart as they listen. It's more difficult to repeat back what was heard, translate into the native language, take notes, make an outline, or answer comprehension questions. To add more challenge, learners can continue a story text, solve a problem, perform a similar task with a classmate after listening to a model (for example, order a cake from a bakery), or participate in real-time conversation.

B. The Nature of Speaking

1. Definition of Speaking

Speaking is one of skill in English language. According to Brown and Yule in Yeleffini ( 1996 ) , Speaking is oral interaction where the participant need to negotiate meaning contained in ideas , feeling and information and manage of who is, to what, to whom, and about what.

Harmer ( 2001: 26 ) said that speaking is ability to speak fluent presupposes not only knowledge of language features, but also the ability to process the information and language and message.

Shaumin (1997 :10) says: speaking is one of the central element of communication and speaking seems to be the main skill and speaking is one of ability that should be mastered by the students to communicate each other because people often make judgment about language more from speaking ability than from any of other skills.

From the definition above the writer conclude that speaking is oral interaction that used to express ideas in form of speech sound by using language.

2. The Elements of speaking

Presupposes not only knowledge of language feature, but also the ability to process information and language on the spot. He further said that among the elements necessary for spoken production are the following:

a. Connected Speech

b. Expressive Devices

c. Lexis and Grammar

d. Negotiation Language.

Based on explanation above, it can be conclude that speaking is the skill that are important which all of people want their knowledge fluently through available process. There are four necessary elements: connected speech, expressing devices, lexis grammar, and negotiation language.

3. The Important of Speaking

Dalismaniar (2007:30) said that all of the four skills like listening, speaking, reading and writing. But speaking seems intuitively the important people who know the language are referred to as speaker of that language, as if speaking included all other kind of knowing and many of most foreign language learners are primary in learning to speak.

According to Dalismaniar (2007;31) by using speaking English is one of way to inform something to other or listener. In communication their speaker, listener and message, so how the speaker understands the speaking, its’ a duty of the speaker. If the speaker made something wrong in communication so, the listener also had done same mistake especially in catch the idea or information from the speak. Finally it can be stated that using speaking English is one of way to inform something to other or listener.

 4. Teaching Speaking

The primary stress is laid on oral proficiency. Because of Speaking is fundamental for communication and is essential for developing interpersonal skill. More speaking is found to be particularly effective in developing intelligence, thinking with an orderly mind, and express oneself accurately. And very often our first impression of a person is based on his/her ability to speak fluently and clearly. However, learning to speak in another language is not an easy thing. As teachers, we need to be patient and tolerant; create a very relaxed and friendly environment for pupils to try to speak in the new language; encourage pupils and praise them for being brave; encourage pupils’ efforts at speaking. What more important is that we need to make the scene dialogue; create interesting topics and genuine purposes for pupils to speak the language; ask them on duty to report the weather conditions or the attendance in English songs. Of course, some imitations and repetitions are necessary to prepare pupils to speak, but even with imitations and repetitions, we can make them more interesting and meaningful. The following are some speaking activities: whisper a sentence; speaking chains; telling or retelling stories ect.

A wise person once said: “Show me and I will remember. Involve me and I will understand.” If a teacher just teaches his or her language pupils, the pupils will not develop their own speaking skills. If the teacher involves the pupils in communicative learning activities, the pupils will be developed their speaking skills, which can carry them success, and be more motivated and interested. As for children, it should be quite easy to get them involved in speaking as they are naturally interested in communicating with each other. This is why it is important to make a language class as pupil-centered as possible. Therefore, interaction and experimenting with the language in communication are very important factors for language development.

In primary schools two main types of speaking activities are used. The first type, songs, chants, and poems, encourages pupils to mimic the model they hear on the cassette. This helps pupils to master the sounds, rhythms, and intonation of the English language through simple reproduction. The games and pair work activities on the other hand, although always based on a given model, encourage the pupils to begin to manipulate the language by presenting them with a certain amount of choice, albeit within a fairly controlled situation.

C. Integrated Teaching Listening and Speaking for Elementary school students

Listening and speaking are very important skills for beginners. Winitz and Reed said: “ a host of facts show that children learning their native language begin by understanding through listening. They comprehend the language before they can speak it. Listening and speaking are essential to sharing ideas and communicating in the classroom, and are the basis of students' learning and thinking (Barnes, 1993; Watson, 1988).

In this paper , the writer bargain one technique to teach listening and speaking integrative for the young learner especially for the fourth year of elementary school. According to the writer, teaching listening and speaking integrative is quite good to improve students english ability and make the communicative learning as a meaningful learning . “Real success in English teaching and learning is when the learners can actually communicate in english inside and outside the classroom” (Davies & Pearse, 2000: 99).

Using integrative approach can help a teacher create a relaxed atmosphere in his or her class that students’ all-round abilities are well improved. A combination of activities involving different skills enhances the focus on realistic communication, which makes the students be more motivated and more involved and engaged enthusiastically in classroom activities. Integration of the skills accustoms the learners to combining listening and speaking in real time, in natural interaction. Students are given opportunities to do as many speaking activities as possible in pairs and groups, so they may be less frightened of speaking in front of the rest of the class.

Because of the fourth year of elementary school is the beginners in studying english, so, we must teach them according to their habit. Play and enjoy is themselves, we must create the class as interest as possible. Pupils are imaginative and creative. They like new things and enjoy participating in actions and they seldom get bored when they are involved in the activity. Even more, they like ‘dance for joy’ very much. That means, they like to do things with their hands, bodies and minds. If the teachers want to make the learners in high spirits and have competence to develop their interest in learning, they should try their best to organize some hands-on activities for pupils to do; combine a good method named “TPR” with English teaching. There are some activities that like by the students , such as :

1. Singing songs

Using songs in class can often bring a change to the routine procedures of language presentation and practice. Many teachers have realized that songs can serve as magic teaching tools to develop learners’ language abilities, e.g. in helping learners in learning pronunciation, vocabulary, sentence patterns; in helping pupils’ memorizations develop a natural sense of the language.

2. Playing games

Game is also technique that can use for increase student motivation in studying English and decrease student anxiety.

3. Role-playing

Role playing is good for improve students speaking ability and also their understanding. Students are asked to listen carefully then teacher ask to express ( what they hear ) by speaking in front of the class.

In the activities above, we can combine about teaching listening and speaking in the class.

CHAPTER III

TEACHING PROCEDURE AND DISCUSSION

A. Teaching procedure

Teaching preparation

Teaching makes a lesson plan and prepares the material as well as possible:

- Description of the class : Elementary School Students

- Aims : - Students can do what the teacher asked orally

- Students have motivation learning English.

- Topic : profession

- Level : The fourth grade of Elementary School.

- Time : 2x 35 Minutes

Classroom Teaching

¨ Pre- Teaching

- Teacher enters into classroom while classroom saying : Assalamu'alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuhu"

- Teaching greets students : "Good Morning My Students"

- Teaching checks the attendance by asking the students who didn't come

- Teaching reviews the last topic about "………….."

- Teaching give motivation and clues about the topic.

¨ Whilst- Teaching

Teacher try to elaborate the material about some profession . Teacher will show the students some pictures and ask them to describe about that.

¨ Post-Teaching

In the end of class, teacher will give the games to the students. Students will get some paper that consist of name of profession and some pictures about that. The students will divide in to some group. This games have the purpose to review about students speaking ability and listening ability as evaluation.

B. Discussion

In this teaching , the teacher must motivate and facilitate the students. Teacher must be patient in teaching because the students still have lack of vocabulary. Teacher give more time to student for listen first and don't ask them to speak until they can do it.

CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion

We must know that in learning process, we must not separate the skills in English. Based on this paper we know that the integrative skill have more effective than teaching skill separately. The teaching integrative skill also give the advantages for us because we can teach students 2 skill in one time. For example, we can teach listening and speakimg integratively.

B. Suggestion

Based on the findings this paper, the writer suggested for teacher, like :

a. Had better in using this technique in small class

b. All students should be invited to practice their understanding in front of the class.

c. For teaching the beginners, teacher should be enthusiast and create interested media that suitable with they ages.

LESSON PLAN

Subject : English

School : SDN

Class/semester : IV/II

Time : 2x 35 Minutes

Competence Standard : - Students be able to listen for information and understand about it.

- Students be able to communicative orally in the classroom.

Basic Competence : - Students be able to differentiate the profession.

- Students understand about the kinds of profession.

Main Material : Profession

Sources : Books

Media : Teacher use the Profession cards and games to attract the students.

Procedure :

  1. Pre- Teaching

- Teacher enters into classroom while classroom saying : Assalamu'alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuhu"

- Teaching greets students : "Good Morning My Students"

- Teaching checks the attendance by asking the students who didn't come

- Teaching reviews the last topic about "………….."

- Teaching give motivation and clues about the topic.

  1. Whilst- Teaching

- Teacher show some pictures to the students

- Students try to answer teacher question

- Teacher describe again the profession and give explanation about profession.

- Then, teacher give students the pictures that not in good arrangement.

- Teacher ask the students to arrange it in group, then ask students to express that pictures.

- Others group will tell again what their friends said.

- Teacher give the comment.

  1. Post-Teaching

In the end of class, teacher will give the games to the students. Students will get some paper that consist of name of profession and some pictures about that. The students will divide in to some group. This games have the purpose to review about students speaking ability and listening ability as evaluation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brown, H. Doughlas, 1994. Teaching by Principle: An Interactive Approach to Language

Pedagogy. Sanfransisco: Prentice Hall Regents Inc

http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/SESLL/EngLang/LILT/postPapers/paper8.html

http://www.Albet.edu/services/LAC/lern10/listening.html

http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/esl/listening.cfm

Marcos Peñate Cabrera. Teaching the Four Skills in the Primary EFL Classroom: University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (The Canary Islands, Spain).

http:/Eric/Techniques/Bazo-FourSkills.html.